the founder of the vanguard group, author, all those good things out there. welcome back, my friend. >> thank you, bill. thank you very much. and hi, mandy. >> hi there. >> speculation. let's talk about that and the role it has played. you know, the s.e.c. would like and some of the portions of dodd frank would like to get rid of proprietary trading and some of that has gone away, but you still have the fast-moving trades that hit the streets these days. is that what you're talking about? the hyperfast trading that goes on? >> that's a big part of it, bill, but it's not all. when you think about our financial system and i think we talked a bit about this before. the role as the financial side of our system, if you will, is to direct capital to its highest and best and most profitable uses. how much do we do of that a year? around $250 billion of additional equity capital, ipos and so on.